Women who have the HPV vaccine may need only one smear test to help prevent cervical cancer in their lifetime, according to a leading scientist.
Women are currently invited for screening every three to five years in the UK.
Prof Peter Sasieni said the vaccine was leading to such dramatic reductions in cancer that the screening programme would need to change soon.
Cancer Research UK urged people to still come for screening when invited.
Nearly all cases of cervical cancer are caused by human papillomaviruses – known as HPV. They can damage DNA and start to transform healthy cells into cancerous ones if there is a prolonged infection.
There are more than 100 types of human papillomavirus and they are so common that most people will get an infection at some point during their lives.
So the NHS invites women, and people with a cervix, for regular screening. Swabs of the cervix are used to check for signs of abnormalities using a microscope (the traditional smear test) or more recently to test for the virus itself.